What is Undescended Testis?
• Undescended testicle (cryptorchidism) is a testicle that hasn't moved into its proper position in the bag of skin hanging below the penis (scrotum) before birth.
• As a baby boy grows inside his mother, he develops testicles. Early in his development, his testicles are in his belly.
• Normally, before he is born, his testicles move down into his scrotum, the sac that hangs below the penis.
• When one testicle does not move into the scrotum as it should, the baby has an undescended testicle.
• In rare cases, both testicles are undescended.
• It is most common in baby boys who were born before their due date or who were very small at birth.
• Most of the time, the testicle descends (drops) on its own by the time the baby is 3 months old.
• If baby's testicle hasn't dropped by the time he is 6 months of age doctor will suggest to treat it.
• Not seeing or feeling a testicle be in the scrotum is the main sign of an undescended testicle.
• Low birth weight
• Premature birth
• Family history of undescended testicle or other problems of genital development
• Conditions of the foetus that can restrict growth, such as Down syndrome or an abdominal wall defect
• Alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy
• Cigarette smoking by the mother or exposure to secondhand smoke
• Obesity in the mother
• Diabetes in the mother — type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes Parents' exposure to some pesticides
• Testicular cancer
• Fertility problems: e.g. Low sperm counts, poor sperm quality and decreased fertility
• Testicular torsion: Testicular torsion is the twisting of the spermatic cord, which contains blood vessels, nerves and the tube that carries semen from the testicle to the penis. This painful condition cuts off blood to the testicle.
• Inguinal hernia
• Physical examination
• Tests of hormone levels
• CT scan
Hormone injections (B-HCG or testosterone) to try to bring the testicle into the scrotum
Surgery - Orchiopexy or orchidopexy is a surgery to move an undescended testicle into the scrotum and permanently fix it there
• Laparoscopic (Preferable)
Why Surgery is indicated?
• Placing undescended testicles in the scrotum may help prevent infertility and may reduce the risk of testicular cancer.
• Treatment makes it easier to find testicular cancer if this cancer occurs.
• This surgery helps lower the risk of injury to the testicle. If the testicles are in the groin area, a boy has a higher risk for sports injuries and discomfort from seat belts.