Excel Hospital
  • Where does Gallbladder located in abdomen?

    The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped sac located below the liver in the right upper abdomen

  • What are Gallstones?

    •Gallstones are small to big, pebble-like substances that develop in the gallbladder.
    •Gallstones form when liquid stored in the gallbladder hardens into pieces of stone-like material.

  • Types

    1)Cholesterol stones :Most common type yellow-green and are made primarily of hardened cholesterol
    2) Pigment stones: small, black to dark brown stones made of bilirubin
    3 ) Mixed stones

  • Causes and Risk Factor

    •Unknown (many times )
    •Increasing Age (rare before puberty)
    •Women
    •OCP (Oestrogen pills)
    •Obesity
    •Cirrhosis of Liver
    •Cholesterol Lowering Drugs
    •Ileal diseases (i.e. Resection, Intestinal Bypass surgery)
    •Haemolytic Diseases – eg. Sickle cell anaemia
    •Genetics
    •Rapid weight loss- prolonged fasting
    •Diet (High Fat diet)
    •Ethnic background (common inNative Americans and Mexican-Americans)

  • Pathology

    Swelling / infection of Gallbladder (Cholecystitis) – Acute / Chronic

  • Symptoms

    1)Pain in abdomen
    2)Nausea /or vomiting
    3)Fever
    4)Yellowish colour of the skin or whites of the eyes
    5)Clay – coloured stools
    • Many people with gallstones have no symptoms; these gallstones are called “silent stones.”

  • Complication

    1)Empyema – pus in Gallbladder
    2)Perforation
    3)CBD Stone / Cholangitis
    4)Pancreatitis
    5)Cancer

  • Diagnosis

    1)USG(Ultrasonograghy)
    2)CT Scan (Computerized tomography)
    3)Radionuclide Scan (HIDA scan)
    4)MRCP
    5)ERCP (Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography)
    6)Biochemistry (Blood & Urine)

  • Treatment

    Surgery( Removal of the gallbladder - Cholecystectomy)
    1)Lap Cholecystectomy (Preferably)
    2)Open Cholecystectomy (When Laparoscopic approach is contraindicated (eg.Severe adhesions) or unsuccessful)

  • Do people need their Gallbladder?

    •Fortunately, the gallbladder is an organ people can live without. Your liver produces enough bile to digest a normal diet. Once the gallbladder is removed, bile flows out of the liver through the hepatic ducts into the common bile duct and directly into the small intestine, instead of being stored in the gallbladder.